1. Multiple Choice Questions(30 points, 2 points for each)
  A. Directions: This part consists of ten sentences, each followed by four different versions marked A,B,C and D. Choose the one that is the closest equivalent to the original in terms of meaning and expressiveness and write it down on the answer sheet.
  1.Bill was given a chair and asked to wait a little as darkness came on, then suddenly the whole bridge was outlined in lights.
  2.It will strengthen you to know that you distinguished career is so widely respected and appreciated.
  3.Alice rudely showed me the door.
  4.There"s the bell; someone is at the door.
  5.There is no one of us but wishes to go to the exhibition.
  6.The car beeped at me until I fastened my seatbelt.
  A. Literary works have stood the test to time because of the skill, who today really cares about the details of life a hundred years ago?
  B. Literary works have stood the test of time because of the skill. Who today really cares about the details of life a hundred years ago?
  C. Literary works have stood the test of time because of the skill with which they were written. Who today really cares about the details of what life was like a hundred years ago?
  D. Literary works have stood the test of time because of the skill with which they were written, who today really cares about the details of what life was like a hundred years ago?
  A. The volume of money in circulation should keep at a level beneficial to stabilizing the value of the RMB and to economic growth.
  B.The volume of money in circulation should be kept at a level that will stabilize the value of the RMB and encourage economic growth.
  C.The volume of money in circulation should be kept at a level beneficial to stabilize the value of the RMB and to encourage economic growth.
  D.The volume of money in circulation should be kept at a level beneficial to stabilizing the value of the RMB and to economic growth.
  A. Development is the hard reason.
  B. Development is the hard principle.
  C. Development is the absolute reason.
  D. Development is the absolute principle.
  A.Most of the less developed areas are rich in resources, have great potential for development.
  B.Most of the less developed areas are rich in resources and have great potential for development.
  C.Most of the less developed areas are rich in resources development potential is very great.
  D.Most of the less developed areas are rich in resources and their development potential very great.
  B. Directions: This part consists of five unfinished statements, each followed by four choices marked A,B,C and D. Select the one that best completes each statement and write it down on the answer sheet.
  A.鲁迅 B.瞿秋白 C.茅盾 D.郭沫若
  A.任何一种翻译 B.文学翻译
  C.诗歌翻译 D.汉英翻译
  A.林纾 B.巴尔胡达罗夫 C.泰特勒 D.费多罗夫
  Possession for its own sake or in competition with the rest of the neighborhood would have been Thoreau's idea of the low levels. The active discipline of heightening one's perception of what is enduring in nature would have been his idea of the high. What he saved from the low was time and effort he could spend on the high. Thoreau certainly disapproved of starvation, but he would put into feeding himself only as much effort as would keep him functioning for more important efforts.
  Effort is the gist of it. There is no happiness except as we take on life-engaging difficulties. Short of the impossible, as Yeats put it, the satisfaction we get from a lifetime depends on how high we choose our difficulties. Robert Frost was thinking in something like the same terms when he spoke of "The pleasure of taking pains". The mortal flaw in the advertised version of happiness is in the fact that it purports to be effortless.
  We demand difficulty even in our games. We demand it because without difficulty there can be no game. A game is a way of making something hard for the fun of it. The rules of the game are an arbitrary imposition of difficulty. When someone ruins the fun, he always does so by refusing to play by the rules. It is easier to win at chess if you are free, at your pleasure, to change the wholly arbitrary rules, but the fun is in winning within the rules. No difficulty, no fun.
  In some societies people want children for what might be called familial reasons: to extend the family line or the family name, to propitiate the ancestors; to enable the proper functioning of religious rituals involving the family. Such reasons may seem thin in the modern, secularized society but they have been and are powerful indeed in other places.
  In addition, one class of family reasons shares a border with the following category, namely, having children in order to maintain or improve a marriage: to hold the husband or occupy the wife; to repair or rejuvenate the marriage; to increase the number of children on the assumption that family happiness lies that way. The point is underlined by its converse: in some societies the failure to bear children (or males) is a threat to the marriage and a ready cause for divorce.
  Beyond all that is the profound significance of children to the very institution of the family itself. To many
  people, husband and wife alone do not seem a proper family -they need children to enrich the circle, to validate its family character, to gather the redemptive influence of offspring. Children need the family, but the family seems also to need children, as the social institution uniquely available, at least in principle, for security, comfort, assurance, and direction in a changing, often hostile, world. To most people, such a home base, in the literal sense, needs more than one person for sustenance and in generational extension.
  Though fond of many acquaintances, I desire an intimacy only with a few. The Man in Black, whom I have often mentioned, is one whose friendship I could wish to acquire, because he possesses my esteem. His manners, it is true, are tinctured with some strange inconsistencies, and he may be justly termed a humorist in a nation of humorists. Though he is generous even to profusion, he affects to be thought a prodigy of parsimony and prudence; though his conversation be replete with the most sordid and selfish maxims, his heart is dilated with the most unbounded love.
  I have known him profess himself a man-hater, while his cheek was glowing with compassion; and, while his looks were softened into pity, I have heard him use the language of the most unbounded ill-nature. Some affect humanity and tenderness, others boast of having such dispositions from Nature; but he is the only man I ever knew who seemed ashamed of his natural benevolence. He takes as much pains to hide his feelings, as any hypocrite would to conceal his indifference; but on every unguarded moment the mask drops off, and reveals him to the most superficial observer.
  The Reagan administration's most serious foreign policy problem surfaced near the end of the president's second term. In 1987 Americans learned that the administration had secretly sold arms to Iran in an attempt to win freedom for American hostages held in Lebanon by radical organizations controlled by Iran's Khomeini government. Investigation also revealed that funds from the arms sales had been diverted to the Nicaraguan contras during a period when Congress had prohibited such military aid.
  The ensuing Iran-contra hearings before a joint House-Senate committee examined issues of possible illegality as well as the broader question of defining American foreign policy interests in the Middle East and Central America. In a larger sense, the Iran-contra hearings, like the celebrated Senate Watergate hearings 14 years earlier, addressed fundamental questions about the government's accountability to the public, and the proper balance between the executive and legislative branches of government.
  Although the American economy has transformed itself over the years, certain issues have persisted since the early days of the republic. One is the continuing debate over the proper role for government in what is basically a marketplace economy. An economy based on free enterprise is generally characterized by private ownership and initiative, with a relative absence of government involvement. However, government intervention has been found necessary from time to time to ensure that economic opportunities are fair and accessible to the people, to prevent flagrant abuses, to dampen inflation and to stimulate growth.
  Ever since colonial times, the government has been involved, to some extent, in economic decision-making. The federal government, for example, has made huge investments in infrastructure, and it has provided social welfare programs that the private sector was unable or unwilling to provide. In a myriad of ways and over many decades, the government has supported and promoted the development of agriculture.